African slave societies

African slave societies

The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. There were large plantations worked by slaves in Egypt, the Sudan and Zanzibar, but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family.
In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the western Sudan, including Ghana (750–1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), and Songhai (1275–1591), about a third of the population were slaves. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of ArabSwahiliZanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.The Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.When British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century, approximately 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves.Slavery in northern Nigeria was finally outlawed in 1936.Elikia M’bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quote: “The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth).” He continues: “Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean”.
Jean Augustine

Jean Augustine

Jean Augustine: In 1993, Canadian politician Jean Augustine became the first Black woman elected to the Parliament of Canada.

  • During her years as a federal member of parliament, The Honourable Jean Augustine has been the Parliamentary Secretary to the Prime Minister of Canada, Chair of the National Liberal Women’s Caucus, Secretary of State for Multiculturalism and the Status of Women, Chair of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Deputy Speaker.
  • The mother of two daughters, Jean Augustine is the recipient of numerous awards–including the 1994 Canadian Black Achievement Award, the YWCA Woman of Distinction and the Kaye Livingstone Award for support of issues relating to Black women. Ms. Augustine has worked on many intiatives related to youth, noting that “racism is the most significant barrier to the successful integration of newcomer black youths to Canada”.
John Hope Franklin: (2 January 1915 – 25 March 2009)

John Hope Franklin: (2 January 1915 – 25 March 2009)

John Hope Franklin: (2 January 1915 – 25 March 2009)

John Hope Franklin was a United States historian and past president of Phi Beta Kappa. Franklin is best known for his work From Slavery to Freedom, first published in 1947, and continually updated. More than three million copies have been sold. In 1995, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor.

  • Professor Franklin served on many national commissions and delegations, including the National Council on the Humanities.
  • Professor Franklin was the recipient of many honors. In 1978, Who’s Who in America selected Dr. Franklin as one of eight Americans who has made significant contributions to society.
  • Professor Franklin died of congestive heart failure at Duke Hospital on the morning of March 25th, 2009.
Mathieu Da Costa

Mathieu Da Costa

Mathieu Da Costa:  It is thought that he came to Canada at some time before 1603, and died 1698.

Mathieu Da Costa was the first namable person of African descent to come to Canada. He was one of the most fascinating (and elusive) figures in early Canadian history.
Mathieu Da Costa was a navigator and interpreter of African descent who likely travelled extensively throughout the Atlantic world in the late 1500s and early 1600s.
Mathieu Da Costa is the start of Black Canadian culture and heritage.

Emperor Haile Selassie

Emperor Haile Selassie

Emperor Haile Selassie:(23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975)

Haile Selassie’s influence on the world is his most enduring legacy.
The Emperor established the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963, with a headquarters in Addis Ababa.
Haile Selassie was a people person.

  • In October 1935, The Italian army, with order from Mussolini, invaded northern part of Ethiopia i.e. Adigrat, Adwa and Mekele. Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations of which Ethiopia is a member state, but his appeal was completely ignored. The League of Nations, especially Britain and France, turned a blind eye to what was happening in Ethiopia, effectively giving Italy a green light to occupy Ethiopia.